Lip contribution to facial harmony.

A study of en face photographs of adult Greeks with harmonious faces and Angle Class I occlusion. I. Ioannidou-Marathiotou, D. Spatoulas, A. Kalogiannidis Hellenic Orthodontic Review 1998;1:11-26.

The aim of the present study was to define in the en face photographs of young Greek adults with a harmonious face and an Angle Class 1 occlusion (I) measurements of lip width and height, as well as measurements of the distance of both lips from the level of the base of the nose, (2) facial types based on the ratio of upper to lower face height, as well as the ratio of the face height to face width, and (3) measurements of lip width and height, as well as measurements. of the distance of each lip from the level of the base of the nose. These measurements should be characteristic for every facial type and could be used as a data bank of reference values and of the range of normal values.
The sample consisted of 84 dental students of the Aristotle University of Thessaloniki who were characterized by (I) bilateral Angle Class I molar and canine relationships, (2) minimal crowding at the lower anterior teeth, (3) harmonious soft tissue profile, (4) absence of dental arch and face asymmetry, and (5) no previous orthodontic treatment.
A specially regulated cephalostat was constructed and used for photographing, the distance of each subject from the camera was fixed at I.5 m, and a proportional development of the photographs was applied. On each photograph 9 soft tissue points were defined so that the reference planes and the 10 measurements were constructed.
Elaboration of the data included discriptive statistical analysis, Student’s t-test, Cluster test, Anova and the method of multiple comparisons (Post Hoc test).
The most important findings revealed:
(1) Statistically significant differences between the two sexes concerning the width of the lip fissure, the distance of each lip from the base of the nose, the upper and lower face height and the width of the face.
(2) Classification of faces into three groups based on the ratio of the upper to the lower face height (79.8%: the upper face height was equal to the lower face height; 13.1% the upper face height exceeded that of the lower face height; 7.1 %: the lower face height exceeded that of the upper face height).
(3) Classification of faces into three groups based on the ratio of face height to face width (25.3%: the face height was smaller than the face width; 59% the face height was equal to the face width; 15.7%: the face height was longer than the face width).
(4) The Anova analysis showed statistically significant differences in the mean values of the three groups concerning only the distance of the lower lip from the base of the nose and the lower face height.
(5) For the total sample, the upper lip height was smaller than the lower lip height with mean values of 5.93 mm and 10.03 mm, respectively. Also the lower face height was found to be smaller (58.74 mm) in relation to the upper face height (63.02 mm).
(6) The mean value of the total face height for the whole sample (121.76 mm) and the face width (121.18 mm) showed an almost square face for the young Greek adult. Of course, individual variations in dimension distribution do exist.

Request for reprints:Dr. I. Ioannidou-Marathiotou, Ass. Professor, Department of Orthodontics, School of Dentistry, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, GR-54006 Thessaloniki, Greece